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Download free Thinking Like a Hacker.pdf Hackers pay particular attention to potential entry points that might circumvent the "front door." For example, rather than attempting to break through a major corporation's firewall, the attacker identifies a startup company (just acquired by the major corporation) and then attempts to leverage weak security in the smaller company that might provide unrestricted virtual private network (VPN) access to the larger target.

Port scanners are used to determine which hosts are alive on the Internet, which Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports are listening on each system, and the operating system that is installed on each host. Traceroutes are performed to help identify the relationship of each host to every other and to identify potential security mechanisms between the attacker and the target.

After the port scanning and tracerouting is finished, attackers create a network map that represents their understanding of the target's Internet footprint. This map is used for the second phase of the attack: information enumeration.


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